Developing languages in the specified fields like one of the methods for resolving the problem of cultural diversities in the processes of regionalization and globalization

Từ Thư viện Khoa học VLOS
Bước tới: chuyển hướng, tìm kiếm


Nowadays, in the international integrating processes, the influence of the nation and the penetration to each other in all fields of activities of the human society in the world have already created a very copious and complicated picture.

The paper aims to research issues on developing languages in the specified fields and universalizing profession specific cultures like one of the methods in resolving the problem of cultural diversities which become highly discerning fact in joining into the processes of regionalization and globalization nowadays and is concentrated on clarifying the main methods for resolving different problems appeared due to cultural diversities in the scientific and technological handing over processes in which the languages and cultures in the specified fields of economical and social developments of the human society seem to have the most important role. This paper also concerns the action of the languages (nation language and minorities' languages) and cultures in Vietnam.


The 21st century is said to be the century of culture, science and technology which are desecive to each country's development. The world is thoroughly prepared with its luggage of culture ready for integrating into the new era - the era of science and technology inventions, the era of connection between nations, countries and continents. Among the culture luggage of the human beings, which is paid the most particular attention to is the culture diversities of nations and countries. This has significant meaning to the process of sweeping global developments when we are faced the trend of gradually broaden gap in the knowledge that becomes increasingly difficult to be filled. Particularly in the global revolution of technology and science, it requires us to have international cooperations. Because without this leading factor, it is much more difficult for us to take research on oceans, the universe, the earth's ecological system ...

In my opion, the environment is possibly considered the natural phenomenon of the nature and the settlement of questions concerning on the environment is to maintain human activies in suitable attitudes to laws of the nature. Simultaneously, it is possible to count language the natural phenomenon of a human society and the settlement of questions concerning on the language problems is to maintain human activies in suitable attitudes to laws of the social development, ensuring the efficiency of the regionalisation and globalization processes. In fact, the language exists and develops on the basis of the nation's culture. The cultural diversities are existing because of various reasons. So, it is necessary to originate from source reasons in order to overcome different challenges concerning cultural diversities in the processes of regionalization and globalization.

This part of the paper will bring into focus the issues on the specific fields of human being's activities in which languages for specific purposes and profession specific cultures play the leading role. In order to be more convenient to closely monitor the content of this paper, it is to call the languages using in all the specified fields of the economical or social development, e.g. technollogical transfer, developing investment and etc. the languages for specific purposes (LSP). It is also to call the cultures at any profession or business fields the profession specificcultures (PSC).

Some points of cultural diversities and languages' affects on the development processes

In the recent international integration processes, the cultural diversities of different countries in the world are simultaneously facilitating and obstructive factors to international exchange and scientific and technological development including technology transfer and developing investment. It is experienced that in the global integration processes, science, technology and investment have the trend of converge and synthesis of knowledge on technology from nations, countries. On the contrary, cultural diversities increasingly expose its distinctive features in those processes. Even in each country, the distinctive feature of its diversities are often manifested strongly in the process of globalization and regionalization. For instance, in Vietnam for ethnic groups with a small population, such as the Odu, Brau or Rmam groups, each accounting for 0.004 percent of the total population, maintaining the language and preserving traditions create more challenges in the development processes.

The cultures are changing rapidly with changes in the natural and social environment, and in the processes of industrialization and modernization specially of developing countries. In our opinion, the cultural diversities in this case can be resolved on the basis of linguistic and cultural issues.

As it is known well, a language is not only simply the means of communication, but also the means of developing the essential forms of a nation's cultural and spiritual life. Only the mother tongue can help to understand the most subtle nuances of spiritual life, so that everyone in a linguistic community can understand each other thoroughly. The question here is that the foreign languages from countries joining in the processes of scientific and technological transfer must be updated and universalized together with the development of nations' languages.

It is not difficult to realise that the language in all the fields of human beings' life plays an important role in every country's development. In developed countries, such as in Japan, USA, the modern linguistic issues have been often completed first in the comparison with other issues supporting to the nation's development. Meanwhile, in somewhere of the developing countries, the procedure is in the contrary direction. That means the matter of languages is ussually got attention following other matters. We believe that this is one of the reasons making cultural diversities obstructive to the processes of advanced technology transfer and developing investment due to the different languages of partners participating in those processes and the gap between them in having a thorough grasp of languages for specific purposes and profession specific cultures.

Some points of profession specific cultures in the international integrating processes

It is the fact that the industry development of one country will not fulfill sucessfully its goals if the society is not ready for renovation. And innovation will in turn not help the industrialization and modernization whenever that society is not ready in its psychology and material atmosphere. In order to maintain cultures' values during the processes of globalization and regionalization and in order to prevent nuances of cultural diversities from developing in the direction of causing contradiction at work, LSP and PSC are necessary requirements.

The researches show if we pay attention only to the cultural diversities in general but ignore PSC in the specified fields of science and technology, for instance, the processes of advanced technology transfer and further the international integration may face many difficulties. We can see this issue very clearly in the symbol example of development investment. In this example, the investment (particullarly in constructional investment) is ussually carried out in a slow pace due to unproper attention paid to PSC in the specified fields of science and technology. In some places, there was even contradiction that led to conflict as shown as the following example: "Malaysian police arrested 29 Vietnamese and 4 Indonesian workers due to their fighting early this November. This was reported to be the second clash between the two countries’ workers by the reason of misunderstanding and difference of languages. The fighting happening at a company in Rembau (Malaysia) made injured some workers of both two countries. The initial reasons as defined were still of misunderstanding and difference in their languages. After informed, Malaysia’s Ministry of Human Resources asked the workers’ users in Malaysia to conduct orientation programmes for foreign workers so that these workers could be familiar with Malaysian law, language, culture and customs. According to the Ministry, these such programmes could prevent regrettable events from happening due to misapprehension among foreign workers themselves. Two months ago, at Garment and Textile Company Hualon Coporation of Malaysia, 11 workers of Vietnam and Indonesia were brought to court for trial because of fighting. Immediately after that, Malaysia asked the workers’ users and the foreign enterprises, who were in charge of taking workers abroad for working, to carefully examine workers’s capacity of foreign language. Malaysia said this had been the fourth fightings which related to foreign workers this year." (from newspaper Capital Labour, issue number 45 (497) on Tuesday November 11, 2003.)

Profession specific culture in each field of science and technology or investment relates closely to the language of that one. In the scope of this paper, we only focus on languages of those fields. According to our recent studies, it is the uncompleted definition of LSP's role in the different specified fields of the economical and social development processes nowadays that creates difficulties in the global integration processes, particularly in the transfer of advanced technology and developing investment. That not only results cultural diversities in being more complicated, but that is in many cases causing unpredictable consequences, and even conflicts.

The capacity of using languages, essentially LSP and PSC in the different fields of science and technology or investment becomes major condition in the processes of globalization and regionalization. In those processes, the language takes the crucial role. Because the advanced technology transfer in the industrialization and modernization requires local experts, who are proficient in the language of the technology transfering country, in understanding cultural manners of partners from countries transfering technology or developing investment, also in having one's grasp of PSC in the transfering or investing fields. In the contrary situatiuon, the transfer or investment will happen at a very slow pace. So, the cultural diversities create opportunities to present and cause difficulties for the people, organizations or even countries taking participation in those processes. No one can guess what might happen when appear problems relating the cultural diversities.

Furthermore, the question is that the local experts should hand over to farmers knowledge of LSP and PSC. Conversely, the farmers are in difficulties to be able to satisfy demands of the advanced technology and from the native or foreign investors. The following example can be a clear proof about this: " Most of Vietnamese farmers have the custom and the habit of doing business at low stakes and separately. Their producing land is originally ragged, but they just only want to sell rice after harvest immediately in the field to private dealers, provided it does not cost much labour drying, cleaning and bringing their rice for far… Furthermore, they have another very dangerous habit, that is: Taking the rice harvested in previous crop for breeds in next crop, which results in the gradually low quality of the rice. Even when they begin doing business with businessmen, although they had signed contract from the beginning of the crop, they were still willing to break the contract if the price in the market in the moment after the harvest was higher than in the contract. The farmers can not be dealing with business in the market-oriented economic mechanism by themselves. It is necessary to establish more cooperatives to help enrich the farmers from their fields as well as to help ensure the quality of Vietnamese rice." (from newspaper Labour on Tuesday, November 11, 2003)

Vietnam - its languages and cultural diversities of its nations

Nowadays, Vietnam is a unified country with numerous ethnic groups living side by side. Each ethnic group has its own characteristics and all contribute to Vietnam's diverse culture. Studies conducted by the Institute of Ethnology show that Vietnam has 54 ethnic groups belonging to different ethno - linguistics families. According to researchers throughout the country, there are three main groups:

1. The Austro - Asiatic family (97.5% of population). It includes 40 ethnic groups with different languages such as Viet - Muong, Mon - Khmer, Hmong - Dao, Tay - Thai and Ka Dai.

2. The Malayo - Polynesian (Austropolynesian) family (1.09% of population). It has only one language and five ethnic sub-groups.

3. The Sino - Tibetan family (1.35% of population). It includes nine ethnic groups and two languages: Sino - Han and Tibeto - Burman.

Among the enumerated above linguistic groups, the Vietnamese (Viet - Muong linguistic group) is used as the nation's language. Vietnam, lying in a favourable position at the confluence of East-West and North-South population flows, represents the convergence of numerous ethnic groups with varied languages and cultural diversities. Among these groups, some are indigenous, others migrated from adjacent regions during the course of the country's development.

From this, Indochina and South China are zones of ethnology and history. It is able to be considered that like many other zones throughout the world, borderlines of ethnic groups and their languages on nation borders and in the adjacent regions or territories are not easily defined. Therefore, ethnic groups living on national borders or in adjacent regions often share the same cultural origin and frequently come and go across their borders casually.

Generally, Vietnam can be divided into two major ecological zones. These are the plain zone, including cities, and the midland and mountainous zone. In ecological and cultural areas, each zone can be sub-divided into different sub-zones. Each zone has its own ecological system and interactions between the natural environment and the people are also diversified. The distribution of the population is often uneven and incongruous. Some zones have varied ethnic and linguistic groups living together. The plain zone, comprising one-fourth of the total territory, accounts for three-fourths of the total population, while the mountainous and highland zones, with three-fourths of the total land area, accounts for just one-fourth of the total population of the country.

The Viet (or Kinh) group used to live chiefly on the plains and coastal regions. Nearly half a century ago a substantial part of the group moved to the mountainous provinces to earn their living. Now the Viet often live together with other groups in the different places throughout the country and account for about 68 percent of the total population.

The people belonging to the Tay-Thai linguistic group chiefly live in the mountainous regions of the North.

The people belonging to the Hmong-Dao linguistic group chiefly live in the midlands and highlands of mountainous provinces from Nghe An northwards.

The people belonging to the Tibeto-Burman linguistic group tradi¬tionally live along the Vietnam-China border.

Until now, those ethnic groups of the Malayo-Polynesian family have been characterized by matriarchy. They live between the two linguistic sub-groups of the Mon-Khmer in the north and south of the Central Highlands belonging to Gia Lai, Dak Lak, and Lam Dong provinces and in the western Central coastal provinces of Binh Dinh, Phu Yen, Khanh Hoa, Ninh Thuan and Binh Thuan.

When the country was divided into two until 1954, Vietnam had a shifting distribution of ethnic groups. Apart from the move¬ments of the Viet, other ethnic groups, such as the Chinese, Nung, Tay, Thai, and Muong, who had settled in mountainous regions in the North, began to move to the South, and to provinces in the Central Highlands.

In contrary, other local groups which had tradi¬tionally lived in the Central mountainous and coastal regions and in the Central Highlands, moved northwards, many of them settling in mountainous areas. After 1975, when the country was finally unified, most of these people returned the South. This has caused appearing cultural diversities and affected use of Vietnamese as a language.

Members of the Tibeto-Burman, Ka Dai, Mon-Khmer or Hmong-Dao languages usually live in the highlands or near the border; their houses - influenced by their itinerant life-style - are usually not very sturdy. Minorities with sedentary tradition such as the Tay, Nung, Thai, and Muong usually build their houses from stronger and more reliable materials. Depending on their customs, some ethnic minorities live in houses-on-stilts while others live in ground-level houses or semi houses-on-stilts. Even in the same ethno-linguistic group there are differences. For example, in the Viet-Muong group the Viet live in houses on the ground while the traditional homes of the Muong, Tho, Chut groups are stilt houses. Most groups live in houses-on-stilts, except for the Hmong-Dao group, some Nung and some Tibeto-Burman groups live in houses on the ground. Due to changes in the environment, these groups now are inclined to move gradually from houses-on-stilts to houses on the ground.

In the areas along the Vietnam-China border in the North West, where in the past invaders, bandits and robbers frequently caused troubles and damage, the people lived in houses on the ground with thick fortress-like walls and the villages were designed in a defensive style. The village house was placed in the centre; the villagers' houses encircled it. The village was protected by strong fences. For the purposes of defence, the houses were adjacent to each another. Every village had two gates: the main gate and the subordinate one and both were strictly guarded.

Mentioning clothes and food, those of mountain people were diverse and were usually governed by the natural conditions and local supplies of plants and animals. However, in Vietnam, rice has always dominated the structure of food for the most of the ethnic groups. The largest compo¬nent in the daily food of people living in the midlands and bare-hill areas contains manioc, and in the highlands and mountain¬ous areas the staple food is corn.

The ethnic groups in Vietnam wear clothes in the very diverse ways. The Viet wear their national dresses such as "ao dai" for Viet women with varied harmonious colours. Meanwhile, the favourite colours for most mountain people are indigo (dark blue) and green, being the colour of forest trees. Each ethnic minority, and each locality, has a diverse style of tailoring, patterning and dressing; generally, these styles are tidy, and suitable for traveling in mountainous regions. For example, people wear short-sleeved coats or coats that mould the body, short trousers; trousers are often very large, skirts are also large and convenient for climb¬ing hills and mountains.

Before the twentieth century transportation and the means of transport whether in the rural plains or in cities often included long bamboo frames with elastic shoulder-poles to carry things effectively. However currently this mode is not in action in the cities. It is not suitable for mountainous regions. The minorities in the northeastern region carry things with frames and poles which are very short, so the poles can be inserted into basket handles. The Tibeto-Burman, Hmong and other groups in the west, from north to south, often use gili (pickaback basket). The Cham and some of the Viet (who live near rivers or hollow lands) often carry things on the heads. In places near large rivers or streams, people use boats, rafts or floats. Swallow tail boats and piraguas are widely used because these can easily weave their way up and down. For the highlands, the horse is a multi-purpose animal for travel and transport - it is not too fastidious about roads and does not require much investment.

In being concerned with hunting and gathering, most mountainous minorities, particularly those living high in the middle of moun¬tains, lived on cultivating their upland fields. Upland fields have one advantage over water fields. They save labour, save money for fertilizers, for irrigation and the results are good. Slash-and-burn farming may destroy forests and the environment, but the mountainous minorities consider that with a density of population practising rotational crops every two or three years then leaving the land fallow for 10-15 years before returning, tropical trees and plants have good conditions in which to resuscitate and ameliorate the soil. When burning to make the fields, they accumulate experience of how to burn in general and how to burn forest, to make a field so that the fire will not expand and the soil will not erode. All these are arts and knowledge that have been handed down from generation to generation of their localities and their ethnic groups. It raises questions about the relationship between the population and the environment. While the proportion is increasing, the environ¬ment is decreasing rapidly.

In relation to water cultivation, this is performed only by those who live in the lowlands and valleys at the base of moun¬tains such as the Tay, Nung, Thai, Muong, Ede, Mnong, or Co ho. Meanwhile, the minorities in the midland regions such as the Dao, San Chay, Tho, Hre and some of the Hmong group use a number of techniques to use the plains, hills or mountains to create their farms and terraced fields. If the Viet in the plains and coastal areas have created a system of dykes and canals to combat floods, control irrigation, clean out the soil; then in the valleys, the minorities - typically the Thai, Muong, Tay and Hre - have created a peculiar system of irrigation with water-wheels carrying water to each field in a very scientific way.

Being aware of the rapid population growth, which is not in line with its socio-economic development, the State developed a policy on population and family planning 40 years ago. Nevertheless, this policy has not been strongly deployed or strictly carried out for the minorities living in mountainous regions. For a while those who lived on mountains were actually encouraged to increase their populations (Decision 94/CP dated May 1970). As a result, the natural growth rate of some minority groups has been very high. The annual growth on average during the last decade (1989-1999) was 1.7 percent throughout the country, in which the Viet account for 1.6 percent, while other groups such as the Hmong: 3.4 percent, the Sila: 3.5 percent, the Pa Then: 4.1 percent, and the Xinh Mun: 5.0 percent. Also, the growth of popu¬lations in some mountainous regions has become a problem. Apart from planned moves, there have been free moves of popu¬lations to the Central Highlands, to the coastal mountainous provinces in the Central region and to the eastern provinces in South Vietnam. This is a problem for the authorities of those localities. In addition, in those regions where there is the movement of ethnic groups, the languages used by them have become affected each other concurrently with the cultural diversities appearing and changing rapidly in the development processes.

Besides the diversity of the material culture, the immate¬rial culture also involves social customs of the ethnic groups of Vietnam. They are represented in marital customs, birth, chil¬dren's education, funerals, festivals, music, dances and creeds. Within the framework of this article, we are only able to enumerate some of these concerned with cultural diversities and affecting languages' development. The cultures are changing rapidly with changes in the natural and social environment, and in the process of indus¬trialization and modernization of the country. Nevertheless, it would be a defect not to say something about the languages and writing systems of these groups.

In Vietnam each of the 54 ethnic groups has its own language. However, some languages are no longer used (the Odu language, for instance). Furthermore, each ethnic group has several local sub-groups. In many cases, the languages of these sub-groups contain their own peculiarities, creating a mosaic of Vietnam's diverse languages. In linguistics alone, our country may have more than 100 different languages. The situation relating to writing is diversified as well. While other ethnic groups have their own writing systems, some minorities still have no writing systems. Researches show that there are generally four ethnic linguistic groups with writing or without writing as follows:

1. Ethnic groups having their own, long - established writing systems: 5 groups (Thai, Lao, Hoa, Cham, Khmer).

2. Ethnic groups having Nom, Chinese-based languages: 10 groups (Tay, Nung, Giay, San Chay, San Diu, Ngai, Lo Lo, Muong, Tho, Dao).

3. Ethnic groups having Latin-based languages: 18 groups (Hmong, Bru-Van Kieu, Taoi, Co tu, Gie-Trieng, Co, Xu dang, Hre, Bana, Giarai, Ede, Mnong, Chu ru, Raglai, Co ho, Ma, Xtieng, Chu ro).

4. Ethnic groups without writing: 20 groups (Pathen, Phu La, La Hu, Cong, Si La, Ha Nhi, La Chi, La Ha, Co Lao, Pu Peo, Lu, BoY, Kho mu, Khang, Mang, Xinh Mun, Odu. Brau, Rmam, Chut).

It is clear that the rural environment in Vietnam is much diversified. People in mountainous areas are leading diverse socio-economic and cultural lives. However, their populations are increasing rapidly and the environment and natural resources are deteriorating. A tendency to regionalization and globalization as well as the process of indus¬trialization, modernization and particularly the negative sides of the market economy have all had a significant impact on the people living in these areas.

In the processes of researching the problem it becomes more obvious, local intellectuals and ethnic intellec¬tuals have come from the specific natural and social conditions. Now appearing the problem in fact and having no easy answer, when these conditions have changed, are how we can, on the one hand, preserve the values of the past and on the other, keep abreast of the rapid changes that are taking place every day. In my opinion, it is able to be resolved step by step on the basis of languages and understanding cultural diversities and its nuances.

The Vietnamese Communist Party has paid specific attention to the issue of Vietnam's ethnic groups and their cultural heritage. The Party considers making and imple¬menting policies on ethnic groups strategic tasks of the Vietnamese Revolution. Over half a century since our country gained independence, besides enacting the Constitution (over different periods of time) and a system of laws, in which the Constitution as well as many other laws dealt with the diversity of ethnic groups and culture, the Vietnamese Party and State have also promulgated hundreds of directives and decisions in the fields of economy, society, ethnic groups' cultures and moun¬tainous regions. Since then, there have been many specific poli¬cies in these fields. The need in the processes of renovation in Vietnam is to accelerate relevant research to understand the concrete differences of each region and each ethnic group. On that basis, supplement, build on and better implement policies for ethnic groups, avoid making mistakes, stereotyping, arbitrary imposition, and improper forms of organization in the process of building and developing the economy, culture, and society in ethnic regions. (According to the Resolution of the 6th Party Congress).

The issue of language and writing recorded in this Resolution must be regarded as a spiritual step from the previous ordinances and decisions. Thus, the language and writing system of each ethnic minority in Vietnam, is not only a valuable treasure of that minority but is also a cultural heritage for the whole nation, of the ethnic minorities where their own languages are used in conjunction with the national language (According to the Decision No. 53/CP). Since 1990, Vietnam's National Assembly has adopted and promulgated a number of laws concerning ethnic groups and ethnic groups' culture.

Up to now, the system of universities which were set up in the mountainous regions, such as Thai Nguyen University in the North-East region (comprising Teacher Training University, Medical University, Agriculture University, etc.); Highlands University in Buon Ma Thuot, Da Lat University; North West University in Son La (newly-founded), there still exist two pre-universities for children of the minorities (one in the North and the other in the South), and particularly, a system of boarding schools and semi-boarding schools. Such schools were constructed not only for each region but for all provinces, districts, and even for several communes. In many schools, pupils from any minority can dress in the traditional costumes of people of their minority group. Numerous folk songs, dances and tradi¬tional games are performed and popularized. At several univer¬sities the local knowledge and the minorities' cultures have been included in the curriculum.

It is clear that in the policies on culture in the period 1990 until now, the 5th Resolution of the Party Central Committee (8th tenure) is on "Building and Developing an Advanced Vietnamese Culture Imbued with National Identity." This Resolution is solely on culture, and touches upon it in almost every respect on the tasks and solutions in a specific as well as theoretical and long-term manner. It is able to be seen in the Resolution, for example, over 50 ethnic groups living in our country have their own cultural values and identities. These values and identities combine and complement one another to enrich Vietnamese culture and strengthen national unity, thus laying the foundation for maintaining equality and bringing the diversity of fraternal ethnic groups into full play. The cultural heritage is the priceless treasure which links ethnic communities together. It is the kernel of ethnic identities, the foundation for creating new cultural values and exchanging relations. The traditional (scholarly and folk) and revolutionary cultural values, must be preserved, inherited and brought into full play; the policy on preserving and bringing our ethnic cultural legacies into play must focus on both tangible and intangible cultures. Inventorying and collecting the traditional treasure (including scholarly and folk cultures) of the Viet and other minorities; translating and publicizing the Han-Nom cultural treasure roust be carried out immediately. Historic and cultural sites, beauty spots, craft villages, and traditional handicrafts must be well preserved. Masterly artisans in trades and tradi¬tional handicrafts must be well treated. (Resolution No. 03 NQ-TW on 16 July 1998).

As mentioned from researchers throughout the country, during about half of a century, the preservation of cultural legacies in general as well as the restoration, inheritance and improvement of ethnic and local cultural values in Vietnam have been steadily developed. In fact, programmes and projects to collect and preserve our ances¬tors' cultural heritage, in both tangible and intangible forms, have been organized. If in their region the Viet have a movement to draw out village conventions, then the mountainous minorities also have a movement to draw out regulations from village level to commune level based on their local traditions and customary laws and with consideration for the issues that have resulted from challenges in their natural and social environments. Among these are conventions about the restoration of their traditional costumes for holidays, festivals or rules on forms of holding festi¬vals in a locality that inherited their ancestors' traditions.

During the last few years, among many ethnic minorities, and in many localities, regions, or nation-wide, sports festivals, stage festivals, fashion contests, gastronomic, calligraphic, family and descent annals, handicrafts, fine arts exhibitions, and craft village presentations have been organized with a view to preserving and developing the ethnic groups' cultural heritage. As well as the Voice of Vietnam - the national broadcasting station which has the broadcast in Vietnamese -, other local broadcasting stations have their own broadcasts in the languages of the minorities that capture the majority in the region; many publishers at both central and local levels have published scientific, cultural, literary and artistic works in the minorities' languages or in bilingual form: Vietnamese and one of the minorities' languages.

Developing LSP and PSC - one of the methods for resolving the problem of cultural diversities in the processes of regionalization and globalization

Because of the world changes, languages are shifted from the place of a tool to social unity in the countries using that language to the higher and more important place in these countries. The globalization is obviously not only raising the role of languages in every country as a supporting and catalytic factor to the nation's economic and social developments, but also its prestige on the international ground.

Researches show that the language basis in schools is likely to bring great effect to the development if it proves its ability on education, that is intermediate language basis needs to be used and is able to impart knowledge in primary, secondary, high-school and university education levels. One symbol sample of Japan tells that Japan has been sucessfully becoming a developed country with internationally recognised prestige and respect mainly because languages have been broadly used in education, that has resulted in opening a broad way for the development of technology and industry.

In Vietnam the Law on Education deals with policies and systems, with the improvement of the people's intellectual standard and the preservation of the ethnic cultural heritage. According to this Law, the State will create favourable conditions for ethnic groups to learn the languages and writing systems of their own and will set up boarding schools, semi-boarding schools, and pre-universities for the children of families settling permanently in regions in specially difficult socio-economic conditions, in order to create a source of training cadres for these regions provided with teachers, facilities, equipment and budget.

The using of national and foreign languages in education always lays the foundation and plays an decisive step to the quality of the countries' industrialization. Therefore, one of the conditions required for the process of country's industrialization and modernization is the use of LSP, that means the specified languages in the different fields of science and technology.

As a result, the investment in developing and modernising LSP is necessary and requires being taken first before a technology transfer is carried out. The pre-condition is that in this context, the building and developing languages needs to be attached much importance, essentially building and modernizing LSP. Developing the foundation of LSP is to create opportunities for one language of one developing country, for example, becoming one competitive scientific language in the country's industrialization and modernization. The popular international cooperations have brought new developments to each nation's languages, and therefore cultural diversities brings prosper to the international cooperations and the processes of globalization and regionalization nowadays.

It is obvious that cultural diversities are existing because of various reasons. We believe that in the processes of building and developing languages and cultures in the specified fields (in the technological and technical fields) it needs to focus on direct and indirect reasons affecting this process.

The indirect reasons as follows:

- The developments and the changes in social institutions in the way of the regionalization and globalization processes in every country as well as the development of its languages give the country a deserved possition that it might not have had before.

- Different kinds of information, the cultural diversities and its exchange within peoples and the significant development of science and technology have been growing very fast. As a result, it is to appear great demands of language exchange and development among peoples in the form of teaching and learning foreign languages, as well as a number of other practical issues relating languages especially profession ones (technological and technical).

The followings are the direct reasons:

- Great capacity of the human beings receiving more than one language at the same time and taking research on different languages with defined goals and directions.

- Researches and studies on languages and cultural diversities of many countries are always taken more broadly and deepy than those of one country.

- There appears an increasing demand of study on languages and cultural diversities in the specific professional fields.

- The increase of the need for combining the nation's language studies with settlement of proper issues of multi-languages and cultural diversities.

In the economical and social development processes of human beings nowadays, because of not paying enough attention to LSP and PSC it will lead to uncontrol consequences. It proves to be clear in the following example. Some steel companies could go bankcrupt because it failed to comprehend all the components of PSC and LSP in their professional fields necessary to its activities.

So, the role of LSP and PSC to the development of a modern society is extra significant. Languages and profession specific cultures bring their direct contributions to the progression of modern technology and science.

Researches show that in the processes of globalization and regionalization it is able to find out some methods helping dealing with cultural diversities as follows:

- Use the modern native and foreign languages with LSP's terms in the primary school;

- Developing LSP (national and forein languages) and giving students knowledge of cultural diversities in secondary school;

- Investing in diffusing knowledge of LSP (national and foreign ones) and PSC before any process of technology transfer or developing investment. This does not mean this process should be without practical issues.

- Organizing seminars or workshops on the issues of LSP and PSC for students and staff. VI. Conclusion

According to our findings, using and developing LSP and PSC are the fundermental methods for resolving problems in relation to cultural diversities in the processes of globalization and regionalization nowadays. To developing countries, LSP and PSC specially ones in the professional branches of science and technology need to be considered as the basis for motivative development of the modern society and need to be used systematically in schools. The using and developing languages for specific purposes do not halt in national languages, but to broadly used and rapidly developed foreign languages necessary for the international cooperations and integration. Because all the diversities of all the peoples' cultures will be completely magnifested through the languages and profession specific cultures used by peoples in the cooperations.

Finding methods which are recollected in the paper for overcoming challenges in the international integrating processes is only one of the ways for researching different methods in the wider range, as the paper basically concerns questions of cultural diversities in spheres of science, technology and investment development processes. Moreover, the purpose here is the leading part of alive language of specialities in present processes of rapid development of science and technology, and it is supposed for development of languages of less developed countries, and also economically undeveloped areas at various levels represent. Finally, it is necessary to pay special attention to the language development (foreign and national languages) and profession specific cultures for developing countries, especially in a systematic way to the development of languages for specific purposes in the various fields of science and technology, and to the further development of cultural exchanges between peoples in the world.


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Bản quyền

DAO Hong Thu, Ph.D.