Thành viên:Cao Xuân Hiếu/Note: Tạp chí Nature xuất bản SGK điện tử cho SV
- SGK điện tử có nghĩa là SGK sẽ ko bao giờ bị lỗi thời, nó sẽ luôn cập nhật sớm nhất so với tất cả các SGK giấy
- SGK điện tử thế kỷ 21 có lợi thế k tốn kém tiền in ấn (thân thiện môi trường), nhẹ nhàng (có thể dùng smartphone, tablet, reader v.v.) để truy cập bất kỳ lúc nào. Thân thiện cả với những ng khuyết tật.
- SGK điện tử giá thành thấp hơn SGK giấy, k bị cũ, hỏng, ko tốn dung lượng lưu trữ
- SGK số hóa nghĩa là có thể sử dụng công cụ tìm kiếm thuận tiện, có thể tương tác dễ dàng giữa ng học và giáo viên
- SGK từ NXB khoa học nghĩa là kiến thức SGK sẽ mang tính thực tiễn và chính xác cao, trực tiếp từ các công trình nghiên cứu. Qua đó SV làm quen với môi trường nghiên cứu khoa học
- Cuốn sách đầu tiên là Các nguyên tắc trong Sinh học gồm hơn 200 modules học có thể tùy biến. Những modules này thuộc các lĩnh vực hóa học, di truyền, tế bào học, sinh lý động - thực vật và sinh thái học. Mỗi module là 1 kết cấu học hướng người học có bao gồm phần hướng dẫn, các hình ảnh chất lượng cao, các mô phỏng, bài tập tương tác, bài tự luyện tập và bài kiểm tra thông thường. SV có thể đánh dấu, ghi chú vào từng trang sách, download bản in và truy cập bằng các thiết bị di động. Sách cũng bao gồm hơn 100 công bố khoa học từ các tạp chí thuộc NXB NPG danh tiếng cũng với các phần chú thích nhấn, bộ 1000 câu hỏi, hướng dẫn sử dụng và các slide dành cho bài giảng điện tử.
- GV có thể theo dõi tiến trình học tập của từng SV trong lớp qua Sổ theo dõi bài giảng (Gradebook)
- Kết thúc mỗi module học là (1) tổng kết các khái niệm chính; (2) diễn giải thuật ngữ với phát âm audio; (3) 5-7 câu hỏi trắc nghiệm. Ngay khi SV hoàn thành bài test, kết quả sẽ hiển thị cùng lời giải thích đối với các câu hỏi sai, đồng thời kết quả cũng sẽ được gửi đến cho GV chịu trách nhiệm.
- Mỗi GV được cung cấp 1 không gian cho lớp học của mình. Nơi có thể gửi thông báo. Một số theo dõi kết quả học tập của từng SV, thông kê trung bình của cả lớp và có thể so sánh với các lớp khác.
- Các GV đồng thời cũng chia sẻ 1 kho kinh nghiệm hướng dẫn giảng bài với nhau, có thể download về máy tính cá nhân. Các công cụ hỗ trợ xây dựng bài giảng điện tử và thiết kế bài kiểm tra
- SV cũng có góc học tập của bản thân với tài liệu hỗ trợ, trắc nghiệm.
- Apple với iPad cũng bước chân vào lĩnh vực nội dung số với iBook là 1 ứng dụng trên iPad nhằm bán SGK điện tử (eBook) với giá từ 15$ trở lên. Hoạt động này 1 lần nữa khẳng định xu thế chuyển từ SGK in mực sang SGK điện tử.
- Vấn đề chi phí hardware của iPad không được Apple đề cập là sẽ giảm giá. Tuy nhiên các nhà xuất bản có xu thế đa dạng hóa hợp tác (ví dụ với Kindle Fire của Amazone) để giảm chi phí phần cứng cho HS, SV.
- Các nhà giáo dục nhận định, thế hệ trẻ hiện nay càng ngày càng phụ thuộc vào các thiết bị điện tử và nội dung số. Nếu phương pháp giáo dục ko đổi mới kịp theo xu hướng thì HS, SV sẽ xa rời môi trường GD làm các mục tiêu GD khó mà thành công.
Các module trong cuốn Sinh học
Unit 1: Introduction[sửa]
1. Introduction to Evolution
Evolution is a core theme in biology.
2. Energy and Matter
Organisms interact with their environment, exchanging energy and matter.
3. Biological Information and Interactions
Living things store, transmit, receive, and respond to information.
4. Practicing Science
Science is a process of inquiry that has developed over centuries and involves the collaboration of a global scientific community.
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Unit 2: Chemistry[sửa]
5. Atoms, Elements, and Matter
The properties of elements that form organic matter depend on the properties of atoms.
6. Structure of Molecules and Compounds
Complex carbon-based molecules form the basis for life on Earth.
Water molecules have life-sustaining properties.
8. Acids and Bases
The transfer of protons causes changes in acidity.
The molecular structures of carbohydrates relate to their properties and functions.
Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules that serve a variety of important biological functions.
Proteins are a diverse group of polymers that play a critical role in nearly all cell functions.
Enzymes catalyze metabolic reactions which are crucial for life.
13. Nucleic Acids
The structure of nucleic acid molecules allows for the coding and transmission of information.
Unit 3: Cells[sửa]
Cells are the basic unit of life.
15. Eukaryotic Cells
Eukaryotic cells contain structures that help them carry out the process of living.
The cytoskeleton contains proteins that maintain the cell’s shape and help with movement.
17. Extracellular Structures
Cells in a multicellular organism use extracellular structures to bind to and communicate with each other.
18. Cell Membranes
The plasma membrane surrounds the cell, protects it and helps it to respond to the environment.
19. Membrane Transport
Proteins regulate transport across the membrane.
20. Exocytosis and Endocytosis
The processes of exocytosis and endocytosis move large substances across the plasma membrane.
21. Cell Signaling
Cells use signaling molecules and receptors to communicate.
22. Signal Transduction
A cascade of events within a cell translates signals into cellular responses.
Organisms continually transform matter into energy by metabolic processes.
ATP provides the energy that powers cells.
25. Respiration Overview
Cells catabolize food molecules to convert chemical energy for use in cell processes.
26. Respiration in Detail
Starting with the products of glucose catabolism, oxidative processes occurring inside mitochondria yield energy in the form of ATP.
27. Nutrient Degradation
Degradation of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins yields energy-rich molecules for cellular respiration
28. Fermentation and Anaerobic Respiration
Organisms have methods for obtaining energy from fuel without the use of oxygen.
29. Photosynthesis Overview
The evolution of photosynthesis paved the way for most of Earth’s ecological communities.
30. Photosynthesis I: Absorbing and Capturing Light Energy
Specialized plant pigments capture light for photosynthesis.
31. Photosynthesis II: Energy and Sugars
Photosynthesis involves biochemical pathways that extract energy from electrons in water and use this energy to build CO2 molecules into sugars.
32. C3, C4, and CAM Photosynthesis
C4 photosynthesis evolved as a more efficient photosynthetic pathway that conserves water.
33. Cell Division
Cells have processes for copying and distributing genetic material to daughter cells during division.
34. Cell Cycle Control
Molecular controls monitor the progression of the cell cycle.
Programmed cell death is vital to the health of multicellular organisms.
Unit 4: Genetics[sửa]
36. Sexual Life Cycle Inheritance
The sexual life cycle contains haploid and diploid phases.
37. Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
Meiosis is the process of cell division that results in haploid gametes used in sexual reproduction.
38. Mendel's Principles
Mendel’s data analysis and experimental setup laid the groundwork for the modern field of genetics.
39. Mendelian Inheritance
Inheritance follows the rules of probability.
40. Non-Mendelian Inheritance
Many patterns of inheritance are more complex than those Gregor Mendel described.
41. Mendelian Inheritance in Humans
Some human traits follow Mendelian inheritance patterns.
42. Chromosome Theory
Thomas Morgan’s discoveries helped solidify the chromosomal theory of inheritance.
43. Linked Genes
Linked genes are inherited in patterns that deviate from typical Mendelian inheritance.
44. Genetic Disorders
Inheritance of gene mutations or alterations in chromosomes can cause genetic disorders in humans.
Many scientists and technological advances contributed to the discovery of DNA structure and function.
46. DNA Replication
During DNA replication, a cell uses a variety of proteins to create a new copy of its genome.
Changes in DNA have multiple causes and varied effects.
Chromosome structure has multiple layers that emerge from interactions between DNA and proteins.
49. Gene Expression
More than just transcription and translation, gene expression also involves epigenetic and environmental factors.
Transcription is the process of decoding information from DNA to RNA.
Translation is the process by which a cell assembles proteins from the genetic code.
52. Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
Prokaryotic gene regulation mechanisms allow bacteria to quickly adapt to their environments.
53. Eukaryotic Gene Regulation
Gene regulation in eukaryotic cells can occur during transcription, translation, or afterwards.
54. Noncoding RNA
Genomes give rise to noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression.
55. Cell Differentiation
The many cell types in a multicellular organism emerge from a single cell by the process of differentiation.
Modern scientific research illuminates our understanding of cancer genetics and continually revises our approach to cancer therapies.
Viruses are nonliving particles that depend on their cellular hosts to replicate.
58. Cloning DNA
Scientists use viruses and bacteria and their enzymes as tools for cloning DNA sequences from many different species.
59. DNA Technology
Researchers use DNA technology to sequence genes and study their expression, function and relationship to disease.
60. Cloning Organisms
Cloning entire organisms may have applications ranging from stem cell production to conservation.
61. Practical Applications of DNA Technology
DNA technology has a variety of applications across industries including agriculture, medicine and forensics.
Accessing the information locked in an organism’s genome has countless applications, from evolutionary comparisons to individualized medicine.
63. Genome Diversity
Genomes come in different sizes with widely varying numbers of genes and gene densities.
64. Comparative Genomics
Comparison of genomes gives insight into evolutionary and developmental relatedness among organisms.
Unit 5: Evolution[sửa]
Evolution is a cornerstone theory in biology that is supported by a vast amount of evidence from several fields of study.
66. The Darwinian Revolution
Charles Darwin’s publications formed the foundation upon which the modern theory of evolution was built.
67. Forces That Drive Evolution
Evolution arises from a combination of selective forces and random events in the genome and the environment.
68. Genetic Variation in Populations
Driving forces of evolution affect the genetic makeup of individuals in populations.
69. Calculating Changes in Allele Frequencies
Scientists use the Hardy-Weinberg equation to calculate the genetic variation of a population at equilibrium.
70. Effects of Natural Selection
Changes in allele frequency may occur in a population over successive generations when variations in heritable traits cause differences in reproductive success.
71. Adaptive Traits
Natural selection tends to favor the spread of adaptive traits in a population.
Adaptations come about as a result of interactions between organisms and their environment.
73. The Biological Species Concept
According to the biological species concept, reproductive isolation drives the evolution of new species.
74. Sympatric Speciation
New species can evolve in the same geographic location.
75. Pace of Speciation
Pace of speciation depends on interactions between a population’s genome and its environment.
76. Origin of Life
Life on Earth likely began as macromolecules that developed into self-replicating protocells.
77. Early Evolution of Life
Major events in early life include the evolution of prokaryotes, photosynthesis, eukaryotes, multicellularity, and colonization of land.
78. Change in Species on Earth over Time
The assemblage of species inhabiting Earth changes over geologic time
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Unit 6: Biodiversity[sửa]
Morphological and molecular data permit classification of organisms by their evolutionary relationships.
80. Constructing Phylogenetic Trees
A phylogenetic tree should reflect the available data.
81. Revising the Tree of Life
The tree of life model explains relationships between organisms, but can change and adjust as new data become available.
82. Structural and Functional Adaptations in Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes are an enormously diverse set of organisms that inhabit every corner of the planet.
83. Genetic Variation in Prokaryotes
Sequencing specific regions of prokaryotic genomes has revealed their enormous depth and complexity.
84. Nutritional and Metabolic Adaptation in Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes have evolved to metabolize different types of nutrients.
85. Molecular Systematics and Prokaryotes
The evolution of prokaryotes has followed a complex path of genetic transfer.
86. Prokaryotes in Our Environment
Prokaryotes play essential roles in nutrient recycling, and can be both beneficial and harmful to humans and other organisms.
Scientists continue to reveal the evolutionary history of protists, a kingdom of diverse eukaryotes.
88. Protists in Our Environment
Protists play critical ecological roles on Earth.
89. Lineages of Protists
Scientists have classified protists into five major groups of organisms based on genetic evidence and other distinct characteristics.
90. Plant Biodiversity and Humans
Humans rely on the biodiversity of plants for food and energy, even as human activity decreases this biodiversity.
True plants share a common ancestor with green algae.
92. Nonvascular Plants
Nonvascular plants are simple yet diverse and ecologically important.
93. Seedless Vascular Plants
Seedless vascular plants evolved adaptations that allowed them to flourish on land in the carboniferous period.
94. Seed Plants
Seed plants evolved important adaptations for life on land.
Gymnosperms produce seeds that are not enclosed by ovaries.
Fruit and flowers are the major reproductive adaptations of angiosperms.
Scientists continually update evolutionary relationships for the large diversity of fungi.
98. Fungi in the Environment
Fungi play many roles in ecosystems.
99. Fungi Feeding
Fungi have evolved diverse structures for obtaining energy.
100. Fungal Reproduction
Most fungi can reproduce both sexually and asexually.
101. Biodiversity of Animals
Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic organisms that have a variety of body plans.
Invertebrates are an informal grouping containing all animals that lack a backbone.
The symmetry of animals is one way to describe and classify them into groups.
Protostomes share a distinct pattern of embryonic development.
Arthropods are the most abundant animals on Earth.
Deuterostomes are a complex and diverse group of animals with common embryological development patterns.
Vertebrate evolution generated both unity and diversity in morphological adaptations.
Fish evolved the earliest morphological characteristics of vertebrates.
109. Amphibians: The First Tetrapods
Tetrapod evolution paved the way for animals to live outside aquatic environments and inhabit land.
Amniotes evolved adaptations to permit life on land.
Among other distinct characteristics, mammals have evolved the ability to produce milk for feeding their young.
112. Human Evolution
Human evolution is marked by advances in cognitive function and global migration.
Unit 7: Plant Systems[sửa]
113. Plant Anatomy
The structure of a plant is organized in a hierarchy, from cells to tissues to organs.
114. Plant Growth and Development
Plant growth depends on cell differentiation and leads to developmental patterning.
115. Plant Structure and Function
Plants have evolved many different ways to attain light, nutrients, and water from their environment.
116. Plant Transportation and Transpiration
Trees have no heartbeats or constricting veins, but they nevertheless have powerful methods to move fluids through their tissues.
117. Plant Nutrients
Plants interact with microorganisms in soil to obtain necessary nutrients.
118. Flowering Plant Life Cycle
The angiosperm life cycle involves the production of flowers, fruits, and seeds.
119. Flowering Plant Reproduction
Angiosperms have evolved a variety of reproductive strategies.
120. Plant Genetic Engineering
Humans change genetic codes in plants for agricultural benefits.
121. Plants and Signal Transduction
Plants can receive, transmit and respond to signals using the same basic signaling pathways as other organisms.
122. Plant Hormones
Plants produce hormones that trigger several vital functions, including many related to growth.
123. Plants and Light
Plants must be able to respond to light to survive.
124. Plant Responses to Non-Light Stimuli
Plants have evolved ways to respond to environmental change, stress, and predators.
125. Plant Defense
Plants must defend themselves from predators and pathogens.
Unit 8: Animal Systems[sửa]
126. Animal Structure and Function
Each structure in an animal relates to a function necessary for that animal’s survival.
To survive, organisms must maintain stable internal environments.
Organisms need to regulate internal temperature to survive.
129. Nervous Systems
The nervous system is an interconnected network of different cells including neurons and glial cells.
130. Action Potentials
Neurons transmit messages with electrical currents that flow along their membranes.
131. Neurons and Synaptic Communication
Neurons interface and communicate with other cells through synapses.
132. Structure and Function of the Vertebrate Nervous System
The vertebrate nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord and nerves.
133. The Human Brain: Language, Memory, and fMRI
The human brain is a network of interconnected regions that share some functions, but not others.
134. Sensory Receptors and the CNS
The ability of an organism to respond to its environment has evolved in step with the development of diverse sensory receptors.
135. The Ear: Auditory and Balance System
The senses of hearing and body position function through sensory receptors in the ears.
Vision is based on the reception of light through receptor cells that send information to the brain.
137. Taste and Smell
Taste and smell senses allow an organism to interact physiologically with other organisms and the environment.
138. Muscle Function at the Cellular Level
Muscle fibers contract through regulated interactions between microfilaments.
139. Skeletal System and Locomotion
Skeletal systems come in various forms and support an organism's locomotion.
140. Hormones as Signaling Molecules
Hormones are chemical signals that communicate messages between cells.
141. Hormones and the Body
Hormones are chemical signals that the body uses to coordinate functions including development and response to the environment.
142. Endocrine System
The endocrine system maintains homeostasis, ensures appropriate development, and generates behaviors through interaction with the nervous system.
143. Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
Two major participants in vertebrate endocrine pathways are the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.
144. Animal Energy Requirements
The energy an animal needs depends on its size, activity level, and environmental factors.
145. Animal Nutrition and Diet
Animals obtain chemical energy and essential minerals from their diets.
146. Digestion: An Overview
Animals use different mechanisms for feeding, but the process of digestion is generally the same for all animals.
147. Digestion Process
In mammals, digestive organs transform food into usable energy.
148. Digestion: Evolutionary Adaptations
The morphology and internal microbial communities of animal reflects its diet.
149. Digestion: Feedback Circuits
Feedback mechanisms regulate hunger, digestive rate, and energy storage.
150. Glucose Regulation: A Case Study of Diabetes Mellitus
Regulation of blood glucose is a critical process that influences many body systems.
151. Circulatory Systems
The main purposes of the circulatory system are internal transport and gas exchange between tissues.
The mammalian heart conducts highly coordinated processes which keep blood flowing and moving in the proper direction.
153. Blood Vessels
The heart pumps blood to the rest of the body through a system of vessels.
Blood is a connective tissue that facilitates exchange, transport, and defense.
155. Gas Exchange
The integration of circulatory and respiratory systems facilitates gas exchange.
156. Gas Exchange Adaptations
Animals have evolved respiratory adaptations to suit their life histories and habitats.
Organisms must maintain a balance between water and solutes in the body.
158. Excretory Systems
Animals excrete waste products to dispel unwanted materials and to maintain homeostasis.
159. The Nephron
Nephrons remove wastes and excess solutes from the circulatory system of animals.
160. Kidney Function and Hormonal Circuits
Hormones can regulate the activity of the kidney causing retention or excretion of water.
A diversity of reproductive strategies exists within the animal kingdom.
Animals employ different strategies to ensure the formation and survival of zygotes.
163. Reproductive Organs in Mammals
Animal reproductive systems have structures for producing gametes and nourishing developing offspring.
164. Hormonal Regulation in Reproduction
Hormones regulate the reproductive cycle and overall health of animals.
165. Human Female Reproduction
In humans, embryonic development occurs in the uterus.
166. Embryonic Development
The stages of embryonic development are fundamental and shared across a wide variety of animals.
The form of an animal arises from genetically programmed patterning.
168. Immune System Overview
The immune system combats infection by triggering a response against pathogens.
169. Innate Immunity
In innate immunity, recognition and response rely on traits common to groups of pathogens.
170. Adaptive Immunity
The vertebrate immune system adapts and responds to specific pathogens.
171. Immune System Disease
The immune system can overreact, under react, or react against a body’s healthy cells, causing various diseases.
172. Animal Behavior
Animal behavior is an interaction of several systems in an organism in response to its environment.
Learning is modification of behavior through experience.
174. Mate Choice
Reproduction underlies many animal behaviors.
175. Altruism and Inclusive Fitness
Animal behavior is altruistic when it is aimed at supporting kin and the population rather than the self.
Unit 9: Ecology[sửa]
The field of ecology studies the interactions of organisms with each other and their environment.
Climate patterns emerge from the movement of heat energy in the atmosphere and oceans.
178. Climate Change
Climate changes naturally throughout Earth’s history, but human activity is driving accelerated climate change.
179. Terrestrial Biomes
Abiotic factors determine the development and distribution of Earth’s biomes.
180. Aquatic Biomes
Chemical and physical factors determine the development and distribution of Earth’s aquatic biomes.
Interactions within populations and between populations and their environment lead to dynamic flux in population size and density.
182. Life History Strategies
Organisms have a great diversity of life history strategies, and these strategies have implications for population growth and demographics.
183. Human Population Growth
Humans experienced exponential population growth for approximately 400 years.
184. Managing Populations
Life histories and meta-population dynamics help us form population management strategies.
185. Species Interactions
Interactions between species may have negative, positive, or neutral effects.
186. Dominant and Keystone Species
Species can influence community structure.
187. Disturbance and Succession
Disturbances changes biological communities and recovery from disturbance follows patterns of ecological succession.
188. Large-Scale Biogeographic Factors and Community Diversity
Features of a habitat influence the number and types of resident species.
189. Disease Ecology
Pathogens can have detrimental or limiting effects on host populations and communities.
190. Energy Flow
As energy moves through an ecosystem, its availability to organisms gradually decreases.
191. Matter Cycles
Biogeochemical cycles describe the recycling of substances throughout the Earth.
192. Human Impacts
Human activity strongly affects Earth’s biosphere.
193. The Biodiversity Question
Human activity has contributed to a decline in Earth’s biodiversity.
194. Conservation Biology
Conservation biologists examine species interactions and explore ways to conserve populations.
195. Landscape and Regional Conservation
Large-scale conservation efforts may help mitigate the decline in global biodiversity.
196. Ecological Restoration
Restoration ecologists apply ecological principles to the rehabilitation of disturbed landscapes.